Asian Long-horned Beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis)

Origin

The Asian Long-horned Beetle is an insect native to China and Korea that arrived in North America in the late 90’s. It is believed that the beetle arrived via untreated wooden packing materials from China. The Asian Long-horned Beetle targets a variety of native hardwood species1. This destructive wood boring insect was first reported in an industrial park bordering Toronto and the City of Vaughan in 2003. It is considered a serious threat to the forests of Ontario.

Description

The Asian Long-horned Beetle is a large, robust insect measuring from 20 to 35 mm long and 7 to 12 mm wide. The beetle has prominent white spots or bands crossing its body on the wing covers. Its distinguishing features are the long segmented antennae (which are longer than the body and alternate black and white) and the whitish blue legs2.


Asian Long-horned Beetle Larva (Yerpo, 2010)

Ecological Threat

The Asian Long-horned Beetle targets both healthy and stressed hardwood deciduous trees including Maple, Poplar, and Willow. They have also been found to attack Elm, Ash, Birch, Horse Chestnut, and Boxwood. A heavily infested tree can be killed within one to two years. Holes from adult beetles and the feeding on the inner layers by larvae slowly diminish the health of the tree and eventually cause girdling, which results in tree death. Infested trees may demonstrate premature leaf loss and crown dieback. Sawdust can accumulate around the base of trees and tree branch junctions near the locations of exit holes and egg laying sites. Sap may also leak from exit holes and egg laying sites, resulting in dark spots or white foam. Another noticeable sign of the Asian Long-horned Beetle is leaf damage from feeding adults2.


Asian Long-horned Beetle Exit Hole (USDA Forest Service, 2011)

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) placed an “Infested Places Order” for the cities of Toronto and Vaughan in 2003. This order prohibited the movement of any tree materials including nursery stock, trees, leaves, logs, lumber, wood, firewood, wood chips, and bark chips from certain deciduous trees identified as hosts of the Asian Long-horned Beetle1. The CFIA, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, local municipalities, The Toronto and Region Conservation Authority, and the Canadian Forest Service removed and destroyed all susceptible hardwood trees within 200 meters of the known infested trees in order to eradicate the beetle. Approximately 17,000 trees were cut within seven months of the beetle first being identified. Surveys since then have detected some additional infested trees, which were cut and chipped2. In April 2013, after 5 years of surveying that found no infested trees or beetles, the Toronto and Vaughan population was reported to be eradicated3. Shortly thereafter, in August 2013, another population was found near Toronto Pearson International Airport, creating a new regulated area in Toronto and Mississauga to prevent the spread of Asian Long-horned Beetle3.

If you believe that you may have found this beetle, please contact CVC via email or the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

Video:

www.youtube.com/watch?v=nIN4lmfuQnk (Video created by Outsmart Project)

References:

1. Ontario Federation for Anglers and Hunters. 2012. “Asian Long-horned Beetle”. Ontario’s Invading Species Awareness Program. Web. 27 June 2018. www.invadingspecies.com/asian-long-horned-beetle/

2. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. 2010. “Forest Health Alert: Asian Long-horned Beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis)”. Web. 27 June 2018. www.ontla.on.ca/library/repository/mon/10000/251265.pdf

3. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. 2018. ”Asian long-horned beetle”. Web. 26 June 2018. www.ontario.ca/page/asian-long-horned-beetle

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